Plant Parts - Roots
Basic parts of most all plants are roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds.
The roots help provide support by anchoring the plant and absorbing water and nutrients needed for growth. They can also store sugars and carbohydrates that the plant uses to carry out other functions. Plants can have either a taproot system (such as carrots) or a fibrous root system (such as turf grass). In both cases, the roots are what carries the water and nutrients needed for plants to grow.
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Plants are of different types. Plants is a living organism of the kind exemplified by trees, shrubs, herbs, grasses, ferns, and mosses, typically growing on a permanent site, absorbing water and inorganic substances through its roots, and synthesizing nutrients in its leaves by photosynthesis using the green pigment chlorophyll. Plants can be both aquatic and terrestrial. Plants are diverse, but parts of plants are same. Roots, stem and leaves are main parts of plants. These parts are modified according to an adaptation of plants.
Modification of Roots
Parts of plants below the soil is root. The color of roots is of white, grey and light yellow. Root are of two types:
- Tap root system
- Fibrous root system
According to adaptation plants, modifies its roots. Roots are modified for following purpose:
- For storage of food
- For mechanical support
- For vital functions
For storage of food
Let's take an example modification of radish, turnip and carrot for storage of food.
- Upper and lower parts of radish are thinner, but the middle part of the root is thicker in radish.
- In turnip, the upper part of turnip is round and broader but the lower part is narrower.
- In carrot, upper part is broader and the lower part is thinner and sharper like the pencil.
For mechanical support
Peepal tree has broad base in order to support the huge tree. Bamboo also has a broad base. Bamboo grows longer and it needs firm support which is provided by its broad base. Similarly, maize and sugarcane also has different kind of root to support the plant as maize and sugarcane.
For Vital function
Some plants modify its stem to absorb the food from another plant. Plants growing in the marshy region has its roots extended outside to support respiration. Some plants conduct photosynthesis through the roots. Aquatic plants like Hydrilla have the root that can store air to float in water.
Modification of stem
Part of the plant just above the ground is the stem. Branches, leaves and flowers emerge from the stem. Stem modifies itself according to their adaptation.
- Underground Modification:Potato stem is inside the ground which has a thick stem to store food. Similarly, onion and garlic also have a thick stem as it stores food.
- Sub-aerial Modification:Some plants have soft and weak stem. Stems of grass help in reproduction.
- Aerial Modification:Some stems act as leaves and stores food and water in their stems. Example: cactus. Some stems are like the thread. Some stem is like enrolled wood. Green stems make foods and stores.
Modification of leaf
Leaves emerge from the stem. Leaf helps in photosynthesis and respiration. Leaves are modified in different forms according to an adaptation of plants. Some plants tend to have huge tendrils. Tendrils are usually coiled. Some leaves are modified into thorns which decrease the rate of transpiration. Thorns also protect the plants. Some leaves are as dry as paper. Some carnivorous plants have leaves with bladder to trap insects.